book value versus sale me understand please!

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I don't do modern, so I can't speak to that. For vintage, I find that as long as the same guide is used for both ends of a trade, it should work out. If the trade is based on Beckett hi or Beckett lo or PSA Ex5 on both sides of the trade, it should end up being fair. Where it's unequal is when separate guides are used to judge value.

One thing I have noticed is that BV of '70s cards is consistently lower than what you can get at online auction. I'll be chasing a $20 card of a hof player in NM and it ends up going for 50, 60 or sometimes even three figures. And there are some common cards whose special interest the guides just don't take into account - like the Claude Raymond fly down, or Glenn Burke rc, or the '75 mvps, to name a few.
I had never heard of that Claude Raymond fly open card before. That is a riot! My Little League trip back in the day was to Jarry Park in Montreal and Raymond was the big favorite amongst the French speaking Expo fans whether his fly was open or not! LMAO!!!
If I had to guess, price adjustments are based on flat percentages factoring in the player and the set...meaning they may raise all Ohtani prices X% and then bump an extra X% for Topps Chrome, X% for Topps flagship, etc. etc.

It's a flawed system, because you've got a specific starting point you're working from. I imagine there are some cards (especially higher-end sets) where they actually do market research, but for the most part, I'm guessing once the initial prices are set there's no turning back and they're unrealistic.

Was looking up some of my 2023 Topps chrome, I think for high end/big names they may have a formulaic approach. However, there is no way they do that across the checklist. Some of the names and book value pricing just doesn't make sense. I do scale pricing for work and could easily put together a better process for the non-high end to derive book values then what Beckett is doing